Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act Erica Dâ€™Souza The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act:Â Impediments of Implementation Introduction to the Subject: The present paper basically focuses on the problems and impediments that have been faced in the implementation of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE) in India. The paper primarily analyses and utilizes the secondary data available in the form of scholarly and newspaper articles on the concerned subject. The paper also attempts to understand, in a reverse mode, the advantages and drawbacks of the RTE Act. A new ray of hope became visible for the largely-undermined Public Education System in India when the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act came into force on 1st April, 2010. It has made free and compulsory education a fundamental right of every child in the (6 14) age group, irrespective of gender or social category (The Gazette 3). Now, it is a shared responsibility of both Central and State Governments to provide free and compulsory education to all children by all means. If a child is not getting access to the education, the State as well as the Central government will be responsible for it. The RTE Act also states that the responsibility of enrollment, attendance and completion of 8 years of schooling of every child will also be borne by the State. There is a special provision for the differently-able children in the Act. They will also be educated in the ordinary schools as well as up to the age of 18 (Soni and Rahman 6). Some important features of the act in brief (Gazette of India II): Every child belonging to the age group of 6-14 has the right to free and compulsory education. Private school will also have to take 25% of their class strength from the weaker section and the underprivileged groups of the society and that is also through a random selection process. It also states that there should not be any vacant seat in 25% quota in private schools. Moreover, these children from weaker background should be treated equally in all ways. Every school will have to follow norms and standards prescribed in the Act and school that does not follow these standards within 3 years will not be permitted to function further. No admission test or interview will be taken for children or parents in order to secure admission. A fixed student and teacher ratio is to be maintained suggested by the central government. The ratio is (30:1). The Government must ensure a Primary school within 1 KM and secondary school in 3 KM of all the territory of the State to ensure 100% enrollment. Impediments of Implementations: Different organizations have carried out various studies to find out status of implementation of the RTE Act focusing both on the educational infrastructure and quality of education. The most comprehensive and important survey is the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) which is carried out by Pratham, an education foundation bringing such annual report since 2005. ASER is carried out carried out by a local institution in every rural district in India. It is carried out each year in two months: September and November. In 2012, the survey reached 567 districts, 16,166 villages, 331,881 households and 5,96,846 children. About 500 organizations and 25,000 volunteers participated in this effort (Status 7). The ASER report for the status of implementation of the RTE Act in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan reveals two major findings which are not very gratifying for the implementation of the RTE Act in India and universalization of education: poor quality of education and privatization (8). The reports also provides some specific findings such as: turn down trend in student and teacher attendance; enrolment is high, but proportion of out-of-school children also high, first choice was given for private schools and declining reading skill, private tution in demand etc. In his article â€œAdvantages and Disadvantages of RTE Actâ€, published in The Hindu on 21 May 2013, Mohamed Imranullah S. argues that despite 25% reservation for children from the weaker sections of the society in private schools, they do not end up enrolling themselves in the lack of proper information about it (Imaranullah 2). It shows that lack of awareness regarding the RTE Act and facilities which one can avail under this right is one of the major impediments in the successful implementation of the RTE Act. Siddhartha Shome in her article â€œWhat is Wrong with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Actâ€ draws our attention to a discrepancy inherent in the law itself which may also affect the proper implementation of the Act itself. She point out that if a private school fails to meet the required norms and standards, it will be fined heavily. But, in the same condition, a government run school will face no punishment (Shome 4). This inherent discrepancy, I feel, will also affect the attitudes of authorities in charge as they will not be responsible to provide answers if they fail to meet the given standards. And that will surely affect the education of children too. In their jointly written article â€œFeasibility of Implementation of Right to Education Actâ€ and published in Economic and Political Weekly, Pankaj S Jain and Ravindra H Dholakia argue that insufficient allocation of the funds for the universal school system also weakens the proper implementation of the RTE Act (Jain and Dholakia 38). They argue that government school system is inefficient to fulfill the dream nurtured by the Act and as a kind of solution to this problem they suggest to â€œrely on low cost private schools as a significant instrument of the government education policyâ€ (Jain and Dholakia 38-43). In response to their articleâ€™s argument, Vimala Ramachandran in her article â€œRight to Education Act: A Commentâ€ argues that reliance on alternative schools or private schooling will condemn the poor and marginalized to a second-rate education as they can never afford private and expensive schooling (Vimala 155). Status of Implementation of the RTE Act (2013): The study carried out in the year 2013 in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan regarding the implementation of the RTE Act reveals two major impediments in the implementation of the RTE Act: 1) The role of the state and 2) the coordination between the implementing agencies (The Status 26-27). The report reveals that the state is not very much willing to spend money on the proper implementation and there is a lack of coordination between implementing agencies such as the Labor Ministry and the police, the Human Resource Development Ministry, the child rights commissions in each state, etc. For example, In Uttar-Pradesh, the state has no intention of contributing towards implementation of Act and is wholly depended on the central government (Rai 3). The RTE Act states that a child must have access to a school near their home. How many schools would we have to build to meet the needs of the population? Dilara Sayeed in her article â€œHurdles in implementation of Right to Education Act in Indiaâ€ draws our attention towards this problem. She argues that proper infrastructure, poor distribution of budget, acute shortage of teachers and great heterogeneity of citizenry all make proper and smooth implementation of RTE Act very difficult (Sayeed 4). According to her the lack of schools is a major hurdle for the implementation. She argues that for educating every Indian as proposed in RTE Act, not many schools have been built up by the centre or state government to meet the needs of the population (5). Moreover, the alarming growth of private tution-based education with heavy load of fee is also another reason. And because of it children of the poor class lag behind (6). Ramakant Rai in his article â€œChallenges in Implementing the RTE Actâ€ draws our attention to another fragile issue which obstructs the smooth implementation of the RTE Act in India. He argues that the Indian Constitution has clearly stated that implementation of RTE Act cannot be only done by the state but the Centre will have to contribute equally. Lack of funds cannot be the only hurdle for its implementation but lack of intent and political will is the primary obstacle. There is improvement seen in the facilities provided by schools and in infrastructure facilities but still quality of learning could not bring remarkable change over the period of nine years (Madhav Chavan- ASER report). There are many accusations against government school being questioned with mismanagement, skipping, negligence and of appointment made on political expediency (RTE Wiki). The act has provision for orphans to provide admission without seeking any certificates but still schools are not admitting students without required documents (RTE). It has also been argued that the RTE Act has been hastily drafted without concerning many expertise scholars in the field of education. Moreover, it did not properly mention the actual definition for quality education. Bibliography: The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (RTE Act, 2009). The Gazette of India. Web. http://www.ncte-india.org/Norms/RTE-1.pdf>. Soni, R.B.L. and Md. Atiqur Rahman. Status of Implementation of RTE Act-2009 in Context of Disadvantaged Children at Elementary Stage. Deptt. of Elementary Education. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Delhi. The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). Pratham. Jain, Pankaj S and Ravindra H. Dholakia. â€œFeasibility of Implementation of Right to Education Act.â€ EPW 44.25 (2009):38-43. Print. Ramchandran, Vimala. â€œRight to Education Act: A Comment.â€ EPW. 44.28 (2009): 155-157. Print. Imaranulllah, Mohamed S. â€œAdvantages and Disadvantages of RTE Act.â€ The Hindu. May 21, 2013. Sarkar, Chanchal Chand. â€œRight of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 and Its Implementation.â€ Indiaâ€™s Infrastructure Report 2012. Shome, Sidhartha. â€œWhat is Wrong with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act.â€ Manushi: Working Towards Solutions. http://www.manushi.in/ articles.php.> Accessed on October 18 2014. Status of Implementation of the RTE Act: Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Web. https://socialissuesindia.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/status-of-implementation-of-rte-2013.pdf>. Srivastava, Prachi and Claire Noronha. â€œInstitutional Framing of the Right to Education Act: Contestation, Controversy and Concessions.â€ EPW 49.18 (2014): 442-456. Print. Rai, Ramakant. â€œChallenges in implementing the RTE Act.â€ Infochange News Features. May 2012. Web. http://infochangeindia.org/education/backgrounders/challenges-in-implementing-the-rte-act.html>. Sayeed, Dilara. â€œHurdels in Implementation of Right to Education Act in India.â€ India Tribune. Web.http://www.indiatribune.com/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=7659:hurdles-in-implementation-of-right-to-education-act-in-india-catid=30:opinionItemid=460>.
Building on Porters Value Chain Model for Design Management Building on porters value chain model (1985), design management creates value at three different levels: management of design activities, integration of design function into all business processes and decisions to the design vision within the company vision and strategy (Sinha, 2002). What is Design? Design is a process of seeking to optimise consumer satisfaction and company profitability through the creative use of major design elements (performance, quality, durability, appearance and cost) in connection with products, environments, information and corporate identity (P Kotler, GA Rath, 1984). It involves a wide range of professions in which products, graphics, services, interiors and architecture all take part. Design is a problem solving, systematic, creative and a coordinating activity (Borja de Mozota, 1998). It is a creative and management process. Design is a process that has four essential characteristics (Walsh et al, 1992). The 4Cs Creativity: the creation of something new Complexity: decisions on large number of parameters and variables Compromise: Balancing multiples and conflicting requirements Choice: making choices between many possible solutions to a problem at all levels Why is Design Important? Design enhances products, communication, environment and corporate identity. Design objective is to create high satisfaction for target customers and profits for the enterprise. It is an important strategic tool in firms unending search for a sustainable competitive advantage. Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organisational, functional, expressive and economic relationships with the task of enhancing global sustainability, environmental protection, giving benefits and freedom to entire human community, supporting cultural diversity despite the globalisation of world. (Borja de Mozota, 2003). Designers play an important role in how companies use information, how product information is documented and communicated (Lawson 1990, vossoughi 1998, French 1994). Design involves finding and identifying problems as much as solving them (Lawson, p.136, 1994). What is Design Management? Peter Gorb, 1990 defines design management as the effective deployment of the design resources available to a company by line managers in order to help the company achieve its objectives. Design management involves managing the creative process within the corporation and managing the company according to design principles. it is about managing the processes of innovation and design. Design management analyzes the diverse elements necessary for the successful integration of design as an essential component of design strategy (Gianfranco Zaccai). Importance of design management pg 68 Creativity is a process which results in a novel work that is accepted as tenable or useful or satisfying by a group at some point in time (Stein 1956). Creativity has been considered as a type of problem solving (Matlin, 2002). Puccio, 1997 illustrated that creativity contributes to effective leadership and discovering new and better ways of solving problems, the effective use of human resources and the rapid growth of competition in the business. Design is regarded as a creative process. The process has five phases, each having a different objective and corresponds to the production of visual outputs. (Borja de Mozota, 2003) These design phases are identical no matter what the design project is. PHASES OBJECTIVE VISUAL OUTPUTS 0. Investigating Idea Brief 1. Research Concept Visual concept 2. Exploration Choice of style Rough of ideas, Sketches, Rough of presentations 3. Development Prototype detail Technical drawings, FunctionalÂ model, 3-D mock up for visualÂ correctness 4. Realization Test Documents of execution,Â Prototype 5. Evaluation Production Illustration of the product The design process (Borja de Mozota, 2003) In preliminary phase, the idea is generated and the problem is identified which can be solved by the design. In phase 1, the designer analyzes the positioning of product and discovers the technical and functional parameters of the project. In phase 2, the designer makes rough sketches of different possibilities using all his creative resources for the clients. Selection is made between different solutions which are to be developed in phase 3. In phase 3, the selected solution is formally represented in three dimensions. The model is used for various tests and the final model is then adopted ending the creative process. In phase 4, the designer works on realization of a prototype for the project. This requires the collaboration of different departments. In phase 5, tests are launched in three different directions: technical control, calculation test, and marketing evaluation. FCUK French connection, also known as fcuk, founded in 1972 by Stephen Marks was designed to create fashionable clothing aimed at a broad target market. French Connection offers a fashion-forward clothing range with a quirky spin on design, priding itself on quality and affordable prices. Fcuk represents French Connection United Kingdom, and is the casual French Connection clothing range; it has developed into a brand name which is highly renowned and an acronym that relates to the French Connection logo. The French Connection brand operates in the fashion-orientated high street retail market offering a fashion-forward range of quality products at affordable prices. Customers, typically aged 18-35, appreciate that the brand is at the leading edge of high street fashion and offers quality and style in its products. The design teams are based in London and products are manufactured in specialist facilities in Europe and Asia (Fcuk.com, 2009). French Connections operations cover several distribution channels, from their own retail outlets, wholesalers in North America, franchises, mail order, to concession stores in a variety of department stores such as Selfridges. French Connection is now one of the most recognisable fashion brands on the high street with a global reach, operating in over 30 countries, with over 1,000 stockists worldwide (fcuk.com, 2009). In February 2001, French Connection paid Â£23 million pounds sterling to its US joint venture partner Best of All Clothing who had been operating the 24 French Connection stores before the buyout. Now French Connection holds complete independent ownership. Product/service offering The company design ranges of products for both men and women from underwear to outerwear, casual wear to suits, denim, accessories and childrens wear. French Connection has expanded into new markets at a phenomenal rate and the product range is now hugely diversified. The company began by selling clothing to the mens and womens market, originating as a fashionable clothing range, and has now extended its brand in recent years to include fashion accessories, make-up, toiletries, even condoms and not forgetting more recently alcoholic drinks. Brand licensing plays an important part of the companys strategic plans for expansion with licensing deals revenue. The company has developed into a brand licensing company rather than solely a fashion retailer. The brand had even expanded into radio, with the launch of FCUK FM. The core plan behind the idea is to target 18- to 35 year old to the brand in the future. Fcuk follows a specific pattern to achieve its organisation goals. FCUK advertised Scent to bed in publications, print ads in magazines that included cosmopolitan, Marie Claire, Maxim and FHM whose readerships were primarily consisted of girls in their early and middle teenage years. Fcuk remained convinced that the campaign was right for its target market. Focus remains to produce fashion-forward products to build on the success of the ladies wear ranges (Fcuk.com, FY09 presentation). USPs French connections controversial ad campaigns with the fcuk fashion developed the brands bold, and witty attitude that has made customers think; with a desire to be innovative, distinctive and yet be affordable and accessible. Their adverts are not like the usual fashion advertising, they leave it open to interpretation of the customer. Fcuk witnessed a sudden fall in late 1980s, but it became one of the hottest brands in England in late 1990s and early 2000s, thanks to its controversial marketing campaign and subsequent rebranding. FCUK has always adopted out of the way advertising and selling techniques, for example their logo FCUK, or the eye catching visuals on the high streets. Accessories such as hats, sunglasses, backpacks, fragrances and the companys new cosmetics line complement the brands fashion (Plunkett 2009). The fcuk logo works as a unique selling point for the brand and separates it from its competitors. Also the exclusive designs, customer satisfaction and service provided by the employees are the unique selling points of the brand. French connection has become synonymous with style and fashion. It strives to maintain the brand credibility and its uniqueness in the market. Innovation and creativity are the characteristic of the designs and the company blends high quality with exciting ideas as well as affordability. Multi -Channel Strategy Apart from the store network such as mail order and the internet the company uses a number of other lucrative channels. With e-tailing, French Connection realised how important their online business is, where they were adamant to win the rights to fcuk.com. In addition to these varied channels deployed, French Connection also grants licenses to retailers worldwide in order to expand their business into new markets. French Connection is aware of the volatility of expanding into new markets. Therefore they are more cautious and get involved with their licensees to follow progress. FCUK and the Market French Connection operates as a multiple specialist fashion retailer, competing against the likes of Zara, HM, Top Shop, Miss Selfridge, Next, River Island and Warehouse. This industry is highly competitive with numerous international brands fighting in the segment. As like all other fashion retailers FCUK has monitored the progress of the Spanish clothing brand Zara. Due to Zaras lean production and efficient logistics, it has taken over a huge share of the market. To compete with them, the design and production teams at FCUK now only commit to less than sixty percent before the launch of the season .The company acknowledges that speed-to-market is crucial in order to give customers what they want, when they want, at the price they want. It sells its products at higher price points than the likes of Zara and HM. However daring its marketing may have been, French Connections clothes were in reality considerably less interesting than those stocked at faster-growing rivals Zara and HM, and the truth finally caught up with the company in 2004. That year, sales began to slow significantly, encouraging the company finally to drop the FCUK slogan from its advertising. That tactic failed to arrest the decline in performance. In May 2009, French Connection announced that like-for-like sales in the UK and Europe rose by 2% during the 3 months ending 16th May, thanks to a strong performance in the women wear sector. Total retail sales in the UK and Europe were up by 8% over the period. French Connection said that women wear had continued to show growth, but that menswear remained difficult (mintel.com). Read Supply chain report. http://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/what_is_strategy.htm Conclusion French Connection has set a personality to its brand, which is exciting and original; this is considered to be exceptional with the number of different brands in the high street. The key to their success is a combination of their stylish clothing range, affordable pricing, merchandising, and controversial advertising. As the brand is continuously innovating itself, they aim to create more fashionable clothing ranges by taking the opinion from important people in the fashion industry. The advertising will remain innovative and creative but will focus more on the clothes itself; creating a unique look that is distinctively, French connection. The brand celebrates individual fashion whilst constantly developing products, market and future goals to expand